Content from Introduction

Last updated on 2023-10-30 | Edit this page



  • What is covered in this training?
  • Who are the trainers?
  • Who is participating?


After completing this episode, participants should be able to:

  • Explain how trainers and participants will interact throughout the workshop.
  • Summarise the main skills that will be taught in this workshop.

About the lesson

Note: this is a lesson created via The Carpentries Workbench. It is written in Pandoc-flavored Markdown for static files and R Markdown for dynamic files that can render code into output. Please refer to the Introduction to The Carpentries Workbench for full documentation.

Pronouns and Names

Using correct names and pronouns (e.g. “she/her”) is important to setting a tone of respect. Learning these is hard to do quickly, so we recommend displaying it prominently during the workshop.

In an online workshop, give everyone a moment to update their display name to reflect how they would like to be addressed.

At an in-person event, we recommend supplying name tags and markers, or using plain paper to create table-displayed name placards.

Note that pronouns are personal and some participants might prefer not to share them. Do not force people to share their pronouns.

Before The Training Begins

Getting to Know Each Other

What was your dream job as a kid?

Participate by writing your answers in the shared document for the workshop.

Code of Conduct

To make clear what is expected, everyone participating in The Carpentries activities is required to abide by our Code of Conduct. Any form of behaviour to exclude, intimidate, or cause discomfort is a violation of the Code of Conduct. In order to foster a positive and professional learning environment we encourage you to:

  • Use welcoming and inclusive language
  • Be respectful of different viewpoints and experiences
  • Gracefully accept constructive criticism
  • Focus on what is best for the community
  • Show courtesy and respect towards other community members

If you believe someone is violating the Code of Conduct, we ask that you report it to The Carpentries Code of Conduct Committee by completing this form.

Today’s Trainers

To begin class, each Trainer should give a brief introduction of themselves.

(For some guidelines on introducing yourself, see the Workshop Introductions section of the Instructor Training curriculum).

Overview on Open, Inclusive, and Collaborative Science for Librarians

The main objective of this training is to help participants understand the motivations, principles, and potential benefits of open science for underrepresented communities with a focus on Spanish-speaking research communities.

During this training, we will introduce the concept of open science, along with the motivations behind it and the challenges that many communities face when attempting to implement these principles. Furthermore, we will elaborate on the concept of digital accessibility, FAIR principles, and CARE principles, and discuss their impact on people’s participation within the scientific community. Additionally, we will showcase various open science initiatives in Latin America and the diverse practices they employ to overcome the barriers faced by marginalized communities in the context of science and education.

By the end of this training, the participants will have acquire information that will allow them to assess the levels of accessibility of different digital resources and virtual events. They will also be equipped to apply best practices for fostering a more inclusive research network for non-native English speakers.

The Role of Open Science in Bridging Barriers

The declaration of 2023 as the Year of Open Science by NASA and other federal US agencies reflects the belief that open science is a pillar to ensure information access and the democratization of the scientific process.


Chelle Gentemann, program scientist for NASA’s Transform to Open Science (TOPS) mission, recently shared in Nature,

“I realized that open science isn’t just about tools. Open-science innovation is being driven by a global community with diverse perspectives. The scientific questions are more interesting and nuanced, the solutions better”

Open science communities and organizations serve as platforms where researchers and societal stakeholders converge to achieve results that are not only technically sound but also socially significant. This is made possible through the application of transparent, reproducible, and verifiable methods, engaging contributors from diverse regions, disciplines, and social contexts. However, non-native English-speaking researchers, educators, and professionals often encounter challenges in accessing the resources necessary to conduct their work, primarily due to limited funding, language barriers, and geographical constraints.

Our objective is to shed light on how open science communities, particularly those in regions like Latin America, actively engage in implementing, teaching, and disseminating open practices and resources. Drawing upon experiences from Spanish-speaking communities of practice, we aim to collaborate with librarians to explore the specific challenges faced by these communities when dealing with data and other resources primarily available in English, which creates a language-based accessibility barrier. Through these discussions, we intend to address how open science practices can aid marginalized communities of scholars in overcoming obstacles related to language, socioeconomic status, and other factors, ultimately fostering a more inclusive scientific community.

Key Points

  • This training aims to help you understand the unique forms that open science takes in traditionally underrepresented communities, so that you can promote these practices in the context of your work as a librarian from an inclusive perspective.

Content from Open, collaborative, and inclusive science

Last updated on 2023-10-30 | Edit this page



  • What is open science?
  • Which obstacles can we find when attempting to adopt an open science framework?


After attending this training, participants will be able to:

  • Define open science and explain the motivation behind implementing open practices.
  • List current challenges with adopting open science for underrepresented communities.
  • List the benefits marginalized communities receive when collaborative science practices are adopted.


Librarians play an indispensable role in advancing open science as facilitators, supporting researchers, and significantly contributing to the principles of collaboration and inclusivity. These values are crucial as they enable global participation in scientific endeavors, ultimately contributing to the democratization of knowledge.

Throughout this lesson, we will explore the implications of adopting more open and ethical research practices, establishing an environment where scientific information is accessible to all, and increasing the visibility and impact of scientific publications. It’s important to acknowledge that open science presents challenges, and librarians must be proactive in addressing these obstacles to ensure that it does not exacerbate existing barriers.

What is Open Science?

The core aspects of Open Science are closely related to Article 27 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations, which acknowledges people’s right to participate in scientific progress and enjoy its benefits. Open Science aims to make science accessible and collaborative for the benefit of society as a whole, aligning with this right.


While there are several definitions of open science, in this lesson, we will follow the one provided by the UNESCO recommendations for Open Science which states that it is a movement aimed at enhancing accessibility, efficiency, democracy, and transparency in scientific research.

This approach is underpinned by unprecedented advancements in digital technology and seeks to make information, data, and research findings more accessible through open access and more reliable through open data.

A fundamental component is the active participation of all stakeholders, including society at large, to foster increased collaboration and transparency in the field of science. It seeks to involve social actors beyond the traditional scientific community by opening up the processes of creating, evaluating, and communicating scientific knowledge.

The motivation behind open science

Implementing open practices in the scientific community is motivated by a range of factors that aim to enhance the quality, transparency, accessibility, and societal impact of research.

Social Impact

Open science ensures that research processes, methods, and data are transparent and easily accessible to others. This transparency facilitates the verification and reproducibility of research, enhancing the reliability of scientific findings.

As a result, it can reduce barriers between researchers and other stakeholders, such as the public, policymakers, and practitioners, by offering them access to the different stages of the research workflow.

Equity and Inclusivity

Open practices help level the playing field for researchers and institutions that may have limited access to expensive subscription-based journals or research databases.

Open access and open data initiatives promote empowering and equal opportunities for researchers, regardless of their affiliation or location, celebrating diversity and inclusion.

Global Collaboration

Open practices enable researchers from diverse geographical, cultural, and socioeconomic backgrounds to collaborate more effectively. It facilitates cross-border collaborations and the pooling of resources and expertise, leading to a broader and more inclusive scientific community.

Accelerating Scientific Progress

Collaboration drives innovation. Open practices promote collaboration and knowledge sharing, allowing researchers to build upon existing work. This increases efficiency by reusing data, reducing costs, and avoiding duplicated work. This accelerates the pace of scientific discovery.

The sharing of data reduces transaction costs; increases reproducibility and reuse of data; decreases redundancy; and drives greater transparency, heightened efficiency, and accelerated sustainable innovation


(In groups, 10 minutes): visit the website of the Psychological Science Accelerator and read briefly about the project. Then discuss with your group how you can collaborate on a project with these characteristics as a librarian.

Share your answers on the collaborative document.

Challenges for adopting open science in Marginalized Communities

The role of English as an interchange language in open science

English is one of the most widely spoken and understood languages globally, for this reason it is usual to take English as the language of scientific research that allows researchers from diverse linguistic backgrounds to collaborate and communicate effectively.

However, while English serves as a valuable interchange language, making it the dominant language of science has a negative impact on non-English-speaking communities. It becomes a barrier to participating fully in discussions, publishing research, or collaborating with other groups. It also hinders the understanding and engagement of individuals with science.

Language is deeply intertwined with culture. By prioritizing English, we risk embedding cultural biases into scientific knowledge, marginalizing perspectives and practices from non-English-speaking regions. It can also reinforce power dynamics favoring English-speaking countries’ interests and priorities rather than reflecting the global spectrum of challenges and needs. It can influence decision-making, funding allocation, and the overall direction of the scientific research agenda.

For non-English-speaking communities, learning the language is often reserved for people in a privileged position. Not everyone has equal access to the resources needed to acquire a second language. This creates an inherent bias towards individuals with better access to educational materials, funds, and even time, further exacerbating global inequalities in scientific participation and representation.

Translation is a laborious and costly process that most often falls on the non-English speakers. One common practice in scientific journals of different languages is the translation of abstracts into English to enhance the visibility of the work and accessibility for individuals who only speak English. This practice is prevalent in most Latin American and Chinese journals, while it is extremely infrequent in English-language journals.

The socio-economic limitations

Being a researcher in a low to middle-income country (LMIC) can present several barriers to adopting open science practices:

  • Limited Access to Resources

Researchers in LMICs often lack access to necessary resources such as high-speed internet, computing infrastructure, software, and relevant literature. Open science heavily relies on digital platforms and resources, and the absence of these can hinder their adoption.

  • Financial constraints

Open-access publishing, attending open science-related conferences, or accessing open educational resources often incur costs and the financial burden may limit the researchers’ participation in open science practices.

  • Lack of Funding and Support

The limited availability of grants or funding for open science initiatives may discourage researchers from actively participating or investing time in adopting these practices.

  • Lack of training opportunities

Awareness and understanding of open science practices may be lacking or insufficient in LMICs due to limited training opportunities. Researchers are not often familiar with the benefits or methodologies associated with open science.

  • Publishing Pressures and Incentives

Researchers in LMICs frequently face pressure to conform to traditional publishing practices rather than exploring open access options due to concerns about career progression and recognition.

  • Policy and Institutional Constraints

Some institutions or governments in low to middle-income countries do not have established policies or frameworks supportive of open science. The lack of a conducive environment or encouragement from the authorities can impede the integration of open practices.

Addressing these barriers requires a collective effort from the global scientific community, encompassing financial support, enhancements in digital infrastructure, the implementation of training programs, the promotion of multilingualism, and the advocacy for policies that facilitate the adoption of open science worldwide.


(In groups, 10 minutes): Think about your experience working with open science and discuss the following questions:

  1. Which limitations or difficulties have you encountered?
  2. How do you think those difficulties affect the implementation of open science in marginalized communities?
  3. Do you know any marginalized or unrepresented communities near you?

Share your answers on the collaborative document.

Benefits of Collaborative Science for Marginalized Communities

Open science can promote diversity, inclusivity, and equitable participation in research helping mitigate several obstacles and barriers:

  • Free access to research results: removes economic barriers, providing equality to individuals with limited resources providing access to high-quality scientific information.

  • Collaborative research and resource sharing: reduce costs and overcome barriers, enabling scientists to participate in projects that may have been individually unaffordable for them. This collaboration not only promotes inclusion but also harnesses a broader range of knowledge and experiences through funding, equipment, and expertise, reducing the burden on individual researchers or institutions with limited resources.

  • Fostering diversity, inclusion, and equitable participation: Adapting open science practices to local needs and overcoming economic and cultural barriers is essential. Encouraging the active participation of individuals with disabilities in collaborative research projects promotes diversity and ensures that their unique perspectives and expertise are valued.

  • Diverse Collaboration Networks: collaboration among researchers from different linguistic backgrounds can foster the exchange of ideas and knowledge. Inclusive research teams that value diverse linguistic skills can collectively contribute to overcoming language barriers.

Check out this post:

Key Points

  • Open Science aims to make scientific knowledge reproducible, transparent, and accessible to all.
  • Open science promotes equity and inclusivity, fostering collaboration, regardless of the researchers’ affiliation or geographical location.
  • Librarians play a vital role in promoting open science practices and combatting misinformation.

Content from Break

Last updated on 2023-10-14 | Edit this page

Take a break. If you can, move around and look at something away from your screen to give your eyes a rest.

Content from Digital accessibility, FAIR, and CARE principles

Last updated on 2023-11-01 | Edit this page



  • How does ensuring the accessibility of digital resources contribute to the active participation of underrepresented communities in the open science framework?
  • In what ways can adherence to the FAIR and CARE principles empower the engagement in open science efforts?


After completing this episode, participants should be able to:

  • Explain how the accessibility of digital resources enhances the implementation of open science practices
  • Define how the FAIR principles are used to guide open data practices
  • Describe how the CARE principles provide a framework that supports marginalized individuals and communities in regaining control over their materials


This second lesson focuses on Digital Accessibility, FAIR, and CARE Principles in library science.

First, we will delve into the concept of digital accessibility and its pivotal role in guaranteeing equitable access to scientific information and resources.

Next, we will work towards acquiring the knowledge and tools required to promote the FAIR Principles, facilitating the efficient organization and sharing of data.

Lastly, we will acquaint ourselves with the CARE Principles, which highlight ethical responsibilities and make valuable contributions to a more accessible and inclusive open science ecosystem.

Digital accesibility in open science

In educational and research institutions, groups are characterized by a diverse range of cultural backgrounds, gender identities, native languages, socioeconomic statuses, ages, abilities, among other attributes. Individuals can experience multiple forms of discrimination or privilege simultaneously, based on these intersecting social identities.

As a fundamental human right, digital accessibility seeks to eliminate attitudinal, policy, and social barriers to enable all individuals to fully engage in the digital world.


According to data from the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 7, 2023, 1 in every 6 people worldwide experiences a significant disability (1.3 billion individuals).


Some Latin American estimations:

  • In Argentina, the population aged six years and older with “some disability” comprises 10.2%. An estimated 3,571,983 individuals. (2018)
  • In Chile, 16.7% of the population has some form of disability. An estimated 2,836,818 people. (2016)
  • In the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, disability prevalence stands at 7.6% among the population residing in urban private households in cities with 5,000 or more inhabitants. An estimated 210,400 individuals (2004)

Digital accessibility ensures that technologies and information are available and effectively usable by all individuals, including those with disabilities. Its promotion fosters autonomy, social inclusion, and equal opportunities in the digital society. It benefits individuals with disabilities, older adults, those with limited technological literacy, and those who rely on assistive devices.

Promoting digital accesibility in research

Librarians play a crucial role in improving digital accessibility by providing support, resources, and guidance. Let’s start by identifying some key elements of digital accessibility:

  • Text content should be clear, concise, and formatted in a simple manner. This helps users to easily understand and navigate information.

  • Images should provide alternative text or alt text that describes the content and function of the image, making them accessible to individuals who use screen readers or have visual impairments.

  • Color combinations should have sufficient contrast to ensure readability for all users. This is especially important for text and background colors to accommodate individuals with visual impairments.

  • Videos should include subtitles and audio content. Subtitles provide a text-based version of spoken content, benefiting individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing.

  • Transcripts for video and audio content should be available. Transcripts provide a written version of spoken content, making it accessible to those who prefer to read or need an alternative format.

There are different ways in which librarian’s can contribute to enhance accessibility for researchers:

  • Teach about digital accessibility best practices.

  • Help creating accessible documents, websites, and presentations.

  • Curate and promote accessible resources, databases, and platforms.

  • Provide consultations for researchers who need assistance making their research materials and presentations accessible.

  • Make accessibility tools and software available to researchers and guide them on how to use them.

  • Offer document conversion services to make research materials accessible.

  • Ensure that library spaces, including computer labs and study areas, are physically accessible to researchers with disabilities.

  • Create channels for researchers to provide feedback on the accessibility issues they encounter.

Bear in mind that thinking about accessibility helps create and promote digital products and interfaces that are intuitive, flexible, and usable for a diverse audience, ultimately improving the experience for all individuals.


Universal design:

The design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design

Steinfeld E, Maisel J. Universal design: creating inclusive environments. New Jersey (NJ): Wiley; 2012.

Exercise: Multiple choice

In the realm of research, what does digital accessibility primarily focus on?

  1. Ensuring data encryption and cybersecurity measures are in place for research data.
  2. Making the research workflow and findings accessible and usable to all, including those with disabilities.
  3. Optimizing websites and digital platforms for faster access to research articles.
  4. Implementing cloud-based storage solutions for efficient data management.

B is correct

FAIR principles and data accessibility in open data practices.

While digital accessibility focuses on making digital content inclusive and user-friendly, data accessibility is concerned with making data sets, databases, and research findings open and accessible to researchers, policymakers, and the general public.

The FAIR principles are a set of guidelines and best practices designed to improve reusability of data, which refers to the ability to use existing data for different purposes beyond the original intent of its collection.

The FAIR acronym stands for Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability, and Reusability of data (or any digital object), metadata (information about that digital object), and infrastructure.


Check out the Go Fair website:

Data should be Findable

Data and associated metadata should be easily discoverable and accessible by both humans and computers. This ensures that researchers, scientists, and practitioners can efficiently locate the data they need for their work.

A globally unique and persistent identifier for data and metadata

In order to be findable, (Meta) data should be assigned a globally unique and persistent identifier. These identifiers remove ambiguity in the meaning of the published data, they make it findable, allow computers to interpret it in a meaningful way, and help the people who reuse it to properly cite it.

Many data repositories will automatically generate them when you store a datasets, but you can also use registry services that use algorithms to guarantee the uniqueness of the generated identifiers.

A few examples:

Descriptive metadata

Metadata provide essential context about the data, describing its content, structure, source, and other pertinent information. Extensive and descriptive metadata makes it possible to automatize some routine tasks which currently demand a lot of attention from researchers.

Examples of metadata frameworks:

Searchable resources to register or index data

Merely having an identifier and detailed metadata is not enough. The highest quality and most comprehensive datasets or digital resources are essentially useless if users are unaware of their existence. The process of ensuring discoverability of digital resources, particularly scholarly research data, is a critical step in facilitating efficient access and utilization of valuable information.

There are various methods that address this issue, such as indexing, specializes repositories, and cross-linling refences.


  • Indexing: Search engines send out crawlers that analyze web content, index it, and make it searchable. For scholarly research data, specialized indexing approaches tailored to the academic domain are necessary.

  • Specialized Repositories and Catalogs: Uploading data to specialized repositories or catalogs relevant to the specific field of research enhances discoverability within the target audience.

  • Cross-Linking and References: Creating links from related publications, datasets, or similar resources to the target dataset or resource can significantly boost discoverability. Academic papers that cite or reference the data also indirectly enhance its visibility.

Data should be Accesible

Within the FAIR principles, making the data accessible refers to making it easily available and retrievable to users and systems. It implies:

  • Clear Access Protocols: the protocol (HTTP, FTP, SMTP…) should be free (no-cost) and open (-sourced) and thus globally implementable to facilitate data retrieval and should ensure Metadata are accessible, even when the data are no longer available

  • Data Repositories: Storing data in reputable and accessible repositories or data centers, which offer standardized access methods (e.g., APIs, web interfaces), enhances accessibility.

  • Standardized Formats: Using widely accepted and standard data formats, such as Comma-Separated Values files, makes it easier for both humans and machines to access and interpret the data.

  • Compliance with Legal and Ethical Standards: Ensuring that data access complies with legal, ethical, and privacy standards to protect sensitive information while enabling appropriate accessibility.

Data should be Interoperable

Data should be easily integrated with other datasets, applications, workflows of analysis and processing. For this,

  • Use a language to represent information that has precisely defined syntax and grammar, is shared and accessible so that others can learn it, and can be used in multiple scenarios (e.g. RDF, JSON LD).

Data should be Reusable

The ultimate goal of FAIR is to optimize the reuse of data. To achieve this, metadata and data should be well-described so that they can be replicated and/or combined in different settings:

  • Described with accurate and relevant details.
  • With a clear and easy-to-understand license for usage.
  • Linked to its complete history and origin.
  • Adhering to the standards relevant to its field.

Exercise: Multiple choice

Which characteristics ensure that data can be easily located and accessed within a searchable resource?

  1. Data are assigned a unique and persistent identifier.
  2. Data are described with rich metadata.
  3. Data are locked in a secure vault.
  4. Data are kept offline and inaccessible to others.

A and B are correct


To make their findings openly accessible to the public, researchers have different options:

  • Green Open Access (Green Route):

It involves self-archiving or depositing a version of a scholarly article or research output in a repository or other online platform. Typically, this is done after the work has been published in a subscription-based journal. Authors retain the rights to their work and can share it publicly without violating copyright restrictions. Green open access enhances the visibility and accessibility of research outputs.

  • Diamond Open Access (Diamond Route):

Also known as “gold” open access, it involves making research outputs freely accessible immediately upon publication, and readers can access them without any paywalls or subscription fees. Diamond open access journals often cover publication costs through various means, such as institutional support, grants, or author fees.

CARE principles and open science

The CARE Principles for Indigenous Data Governance are a set of guidelines developed to address the unique needs and considerations related to the collection, use, and management of data pertaining to Indigenous people and communities. The acronym stands for Collective Benefit, Authority to Control, Responsibility, and Ethics.

Collective Benefit from the data ecosystems design and function

  • The use of data should be facilitated by establishing the foundations for Indigenous innovation, value generation, and the promotion of local self-determined development processes.
  • The use of data should enrich the planning, implementation, and evaluation processes that support the service and policy needs of Indigenous communities.
  • Any value created from Indigenous data should benefit Indigenous communities and contribute to their well-being.

Authority to Control data

  • Recognizing the interests in Indigenous Knowledge and data, and the Indigenous people’s right to consent in data collection and policy development.
  • Data for governance must be made available and aligned with their worldviews for self-determination and governance.
  • Creation of protocols to control the management and access to information.

Responsibility of those working with Indigenous data

  • For establishing positive relationships, built on respect, trust, and dignity for Indigenous Peoples.
  • For enhancing the communities competencies to create the digital infrastructure for data creation, collection, administration, security, governance, and usability.
  • For Indigenous languages and worldviews, and lived experiences, including values and principles.

Ethics in the data life cycle and across the data ecosystem

  • For minimizing harm and maximizing benefit, aligning the data treatment with Indigenous ethical frameworks and rights affirmed in UNDRIP (United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples).
  • For justice that rectifies power and resource imbalances affecting Indigenous and human rights expression.
  • For future use acknowledging the provenance and purpose and any limitations or obligations in secondary use, including issues of consent.


The CARE principles empower underrepresented individuals and communities to actively participate in the management and sharing of their research and data through:

  • Respecting the sovereignty of Indigenous communities, honoring their rights to self-governance and self-determination.

  • Prioritizing Indigenous values, worldviews, and cultural norms in all interactions, aligning actions with community traditions.

  • Investing in community research and development capacity, empowering active participation in decision-making and research.

  • Embracing and adhering to existing tribal and Indigenous data governance protocols, respecting established mechanisms for data management and sharing.

  • Providing support to Indigenous scholars within communities and academia, involving them in decision-making, co-authorship, and grant review processes to leverage their unique expertise and perspectives.

Exercise: Multiple choice

In the CARE Principles for Indigenous Data Governance, what does “Collective Benefit” emphasize?

  1. Ensuring data is accessible to all members of the community.
  2. Protecting the rights and interests of individual data contributors.
  3. Prioritizing the benefits of the research for the broader community.
  4. Safeguarding data from unauthorized access and use.

C is correct

Key Points

  • Considering the digital accessibility of the research workflow, ensures everyone can contribute and fully benefit from its products.
  • In order to be reusable, data should be findable, accessible, and interoperable. This is essential to accelerate scientific discoveries and decrease research costs, improving the opportunities of marginalized communities to get involved.
  • Data should contribute to the well-being and advancement of the community as a whole rather than individual or external interests.

Content from Break

Last updated on 2023-10-14 | Edit this page

Take a break. If you can, move around and look at something away from your screen to give your eyes a rest.

Content from Latin American Initiatives

Last updated on 2023-11-01 | Edit this page



  • Which open practices do Latin American initiatives apply to promote an inclusive research environment?


After attending this training, participants will be able to:

  • Identify Latin American initiatives that have successfully promoted inclusive research practices for non-native English speakers.
  • Describe the open practices that Latin American initiatives are employing to create a more inclusive research environment.
  • Assess how they contribute to increase participation, knowledge exchange, and cross-cultural collaboration.


In this episode, we will delve into the landscape of Open Science in Latin America. We will highlight the region’s contributions while addressing the challenges it encounters on the journey towards a more inclusive scientific community. Our focus is on understanding strategies and collaborations implemented in Latin America to make science more inclusive and equitable.

Open science in Latin America

UNESCO’s Open Science Recommendation for Latin America and the Caribbean

The ministers of Science, Technology, and Innovation from Argentina, Colombia, Cuba, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Venezuela participated in the regional launch of the UNESCO recommendation on Open Science from Latin America and the Caribbean. They recognize knowledge as a human right and, therefore, a common good of the people that should be at the service of humanity’s needs. Because of this, they seek to challenge the monopoly of modern science by taking actions that:

  • Advocate for sciences that prioritize citizenship, sustainability, social inclusion, and the self-determination of the people.

  • Encourage the involvement of indigenous peoples and local communities in the processes of planning and formulating policies.

  • Generate a regional network, develop training tools, and encourage collaboration and capacity building in open science.

  • Provide equitable access to quality education, scientific knowledge, and socially relevant technologies.

  • Ensure equal access to scientific processes and decision-making for achieving gender equality and promoting the inclusion of the LGBTQ+ community.

  • Strengthening mechanisms for academic mobility and participation in open science, for women, young people, and ethnic groups.

Open access

In Latin America and the Caribbean, there is a strong emphasis on seeing knowledge as a communal asset, particularly through open access. Policies promote the use of institutional repositories in universities and National Science and Technology Organizations as primary tools to endorse and expand open access initiatives in the region.


Latin America regulation of knowledge access:

  • Peru, Argentina, and Mexico: between 2013 and 2014, these countries have opted for a legislative approach to regulate open access policies, enacting specific laws or policies.

  • Brazil: guidelines supporting open access have been issued in the form of declarations and manifestos, driven by various groups committed to this cause. Additionally, there have been proposed laws (2007 y 2011) related to open access, although they have not yet been enacted.

  • Chile: recommendations for access and preservation of scientific information and research data have been developed, as detailed in the 2014 Open Data Manual. This has been done with the intention of establishing a research open data policy in the future.

  • Colombia: has begun to establish general guidelines for the future development of an open science policy since 2019.

The federated network of institutional repositories of scientific publications (Red Federada de Repositorios institucionales de Publicaciones Científicas) brings together national repositories from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Spain, Mexico, Panama, Peru, and Uruguay. Through its services, it supports national Open Access strategies in Latin America by providing a platform with interoperability standards, sharing, and enhancing visibility of the scientific production generated in higher education and scientific research institutions.

Open access national systems

Here are some examples of open access national systems from different Latin American countries:

Argentina - National System of Digital Repositories - Open data portal - Citizen Science

Bolivia - Open data portal

Brasil - Open data portal

Chile - Open data portal

Colombia - Open data portal

Mexico - Open data portal - National repository

Paraguay - Open data portal

Peru - National repository of research works - Open data portal

Uruguay - Open data portal

Venezuela - Open data portal

Non-commercial open access systems to journals published in the region

These platforms are designed to showcase and promote research published in specific regions, often emphasizing non-commercial, open access principles to ensure widespread access to knowledge. They play a crucial role in increasing the visibility and impact of research from their respective regions.

  • Redalyc offers a vast collection of scientific journals in Spanish and Portuguese, which ensures that research from Latin America is not marginalized by language barriers.

  • Latindex indexing and cataloging efforts make it easier for researchers to locate and access relevant resources within their linguistic and regional contexts.

  • SciELO includes multilingual journals from Latin America, Spain, Portugal, and other regions.

  • AmeliCA seeks to address the challenges faced by non-native English speakers by promoting regional publishing, open science, and the development of inclusive infrastructures.

  • Latin America Research Commons editorial project originated in the Latin American Studies Association (LASA) and its main goal is to ensure the widest possible dissemination of original monographs and journals in all disciplines related to Latin American studies.


(In groups, 15 minutes) What actions could you take as librarians to increase diversity in the research environment? How could you increase the participation of Latin researchers or research groups?

Share your answers on the collaborative document.

Over the years, Latin America has seen a substantial growth in communities of practice. These groups are self-organized and self-sustained gatherings of individuals bound by a common interest or passion, learning and improving collectively through regular interaction (Etienne and Beverly Wenger-Trayne, 2015). In Latin America, many of such communities focus specifically on bridging the gender gap in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics), on imparting skills related to computational tools, or on educating about open science tools and practices. While institutional approaches play a crucial role in setting policies and frameworks, leveraging the strengths of communities of practice may enhance the dissemination and adoption of open science at a more personal, relatable, and community-driven level. Some of these strengths are:

  • Bottom-Up Approach: Communities of practice are driven by individuals who are genuinely passionate about the subject matter. This grassroots involvement ensures a more organic and authentic dissemination of open science principles, engaging individuals on a personal level.

  • Inclusivity and Engagement: Communities of practice foster inclusivity, encouraging diverse participation and engagement from individuals of various backgrounds, experiences, and expertise levels. The inclusion facilitates a broader understanding of open science and encourages a wider range of people to adopt and promote these practices.

  • Peer Learning and Collaboration: In these communities, members learn from each other, share experiences, and collectively work towards a common goal. This collaborative learning environment fosters a sense of belonging and encourages the adoption of open practices through shared knowledge and mutual support.

  • Tailored and Relevant Initiatives: Communities of practice have the flexibility to tailor initiatives and activities to suit the specific needs and contexts of their members. They can focus on topics that are relevant and directly applicable to the community, ensuring that the dissemination of open science is relatable and actionable.

  • Agility and Adaptability: Communities of practice are agile and adaptable to changing circumstances, technological advancements, and emerging trends in the scientific community. They can quickly respond to evolving requirements, making them more responsive and effective in promoting open science practices in real-time.

Some of these communities are:

Metadocencia is an international community of researchers and educators dedicated to equipping individuals and organizations from Spanish-speaking regions and beyond by providing open science resources, delivering professional development training, and supporting infrastructure design and implementation. This community works to make the production, communication, and application of scientific and technical knowledge equitable globally.

Latin American Open Data Initiative (ILDA) promotes inclusive development, public and social innovation, and open knowledge through openness, the use of public data, and the active participation of the communities involved in Latin America.

Conectorial is a non-profit community of open access journal publishers and research professionals dedicated to developing resources and means to foster scientific production and promote the growth of Open Access journals in Latin America. It provides a space where people related to the edition, management, and promotion of scientific Open Access journals, as well as research and publication of articles can meet to exchange knowledge.

Overall ..

The collaborative environment fostered by communities of practice not only facilitates the emergence of research projects but also amplifies their visibility and relevance. By encouraging the exchange of knowledge and experiences among experts and passionate professionals, these communities create a fertile ground for the incubation and execution of innovative ideas. Moreover, by providing a space for interdisciplinary collaboration, they allow diverse disciplines to converge and mutually enrich one another, thus enhancing the quality and impact of research projects. This interactive collaboration benefits not only those directly involved but also contributes to the advancement of knowledge and the progress of society as a whole.


(3 minutes) Have you ever participated in a community of practice? In the collaborative document, share something you gained or learned from your experience of being part of such an organization.

Key Points

  • The different initiatives promoting open science in Latin America conceive knowledge as a communal asset that should not be tied to finantial gain.

  • For fostering the implementation of open practices, the institutions need to reevaluate policies regarding publication rewards, emphasizing the need to shift towards an evaluation centered on social relevance rather than impact factor metrics.

  • Community-driven open science initiatives contribute to a more organic and authentic dissemination of open science principles. They facilitate inclusivity, peer learning, and tailored initiatives, making open science more accessible and relatable at a community level.